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Fundamental Values of Theories Buddhist Philosophy

SuChinh 2


  1. Areas of Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist perspectives presented and explain natural phenomena and social systems into a unified view of the doctrine - theories Buddhist philosophy .

Throughout all psychological phenomena and physics, we do not have an independent entity, not permanent, they are interdependent; that is the core of Theories of Buddhist Socialism, which is Dependent arising (Pratityasamutpada) and dharma The Three marks are (Trilaksana). Thus, the proposed research, recognized doctrine Buddhist socialism meet the needs and tasks of globalization, it is the value of the doctrine Buddhist socialism and philosophy in the current era.

The flexibility of Buddhism adapted to the social circumstances of many countries around the world, many types of people, many traditions at different times. And so, today Buddhism continued presence and growing extensively throughout the world, even in countries with advanced science such as the Australia, USA[1] and Western Europe[2].

  1. Theories of Buddhist Socialism - philosophy

2.1.Concepts Theories of Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist philosophyis a ideology of Buddhism was formed based on the sense of learning and Buddhist ideology, developed by the principles of Buddhism, which aims to help society overcome limited problem or eliminate class distinctions, moral development, bringing people and society come to equilibrium, democracy and absolute freedom.

2.2.The stance of the Theories of Buddhist philosophy

Stance mainly of Buddhist socialism - philosophy has been identified as a long tradition associated with the life and career of the historical of Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama).

With the foundation of Buddhist philosophy:

- Impermanence,

- Three marks of existence.[3]

Buddhist philosophyinherited the tradition democracy-cloning of the Buddha, always support freedom, social freedom, equality, equal opportunities, including civil liberties to develop a classless society, and to eliminate social injustice. In particular, Buddhist socialism and philosophyalways emphasizes balanced development between the physical and moral.

Fundamentals and mainstream of Buddhist philosophyis the human factor. Always philosophical movement, rallying the masses to unite with an appropriate policy that gathered unpopular, there is the potential strength of the nation, the power potential of the country. People are the key factor of development. To empower people and focus on creating equality for all people in all aspects: religious, ethnic, gender, nationality, opportunities best choice for people development the economic, political, social, cultural ...

2.3.The Problems of Theories of Buddhist philosophy(The key point in the method of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy)

The basic problem of the theory of Buddhist philosophyis defined in relation ontology. What is the phenomenon ? To solve the problem of self recognition Buddhist philosophy: What is the relationship between consciousness and matter?

The Buddha discouraged his followers from indulging in intellectual disputation for its own sake, which is fruitless, and distracting from true awakening. Nevertheless, the delivered sayings of the Buddha contain a philosophical component, in its teachings on the working of the mind, and its criticisms of the philosophies of his contemporaries.

According to the scriptures, during his lifetime the Buddha remained silent when asked several metaphysical questions. These regarded issues such as whether the universe is eternal or non-eternal (or whether it is finite or infinite), the unity or separation of the body and the self, the complete inexistence of a person after Nirvana and death, and others.

Theory Buddhist socialism and philosophy does not mention the guesswork and metaphysical phenomena useless, because it does not lead to a move away from the social and non-integrated consensus in society.

Who is the founder of the Theories of Buddhist philosophy? With a view: “The Three marks are ”, and point of view: “I only taught one thing: Suffering, and the end of suffering[4], have been Buddha Shakyamuni is the founder of the Theory Buddhist societies. Around century 167 and 196 CE in the presence of Nagarjuna (Nāgārjuna) has changed the perception of the world, the nature of the world and the existence of a world without God:

“na svato nāpi parato na dvābhyāṃ nāpy ahetutaḥ |

utpannā jātu vidyante bhāvāḥ kvacana kecana ||”[5] (Mūlamadhyamakakārikā: MMK)

 

“Neither from itself nor from another,

Nor from both,

Nor without a cause,

Does anything whatever, anywhere arise.”[6]

 

Point of Buddhist philosophy is restored, construction and social development according middle path, not disputed in the debate between positions “It's always the” theory of immortality, and “it is and will not be” stance of annihilation. Because both positions if the above happens, we rid ourselves of identifying social construction and social development.

Both interpretations are inconsistent with the middle path of the Buddha Shakyamuni, Nagarjuna is defined by the similarity of the teachings completely interdependent and Emptiness (Śūnyatā).

There is no place where one can find the existence (sa. Bhava) arising from itself (svatah), from the other (paratah), arising from both or without cause (ahetutah).

According to Nagarjuna's stance Sarvastivada, as equivalent to extremist interpretations always exists (Sasvatavada); means they believe in immortality, because they have taken things - the phenomenon to a permanent state of existence. If the theoretical approach destroy (Asatkaryavada), then on cessation (Ucchedavada); Here is the mortgage is the extinction, because they think of things - the phenomenon before and after the appearance of completely non-existent. Both interpretations are inconsistent with the middle path of the Buddha Shakyamuni, Nagarjuna is defined by the similarity of the teachings entirely dependent origination (Pratityasamutpada) and Emptiness (Śūnyatā). These things - the phenomenon does not exist eternal, because they appear on the basis of dependence, basis of system. But they will not be destroyed, because they have absolutely no foundation a self-sustaining, without any self-sustaining basis.

yaḥ pratītyasamutpādaḥ śūnyatāṃ tāṃ pracakṣmahe | sā prajñaptir upādāya pratipat saiva madhyamā || MMK 24,18

Whatever is dependently co-arisen / That is explained to be emptiness.

That, being a dependent designation, / Is itself the middle way.

Something that is not dependently arisen / Such a thing does not exist.

Therefore a non-empty thing / Does not exist.[7]

For Nāgārjuna, as for the Buddha in the early texts, it is not merely sentient beings that are “selfless” or non-substantial; all phenomena are without any svabhāva, literally “own-being” or “self-nature”, and thus without any underlying essence. They are empty of being independently existent; thus the heterodox theories of svabhāva circulating at the time were refuted on the basis of the doctrines of early Buddhism. This is so because all things arise always dependently: not by their own power, but by depending on conditions leading to their coming into existence, as opposed to being.

Was also instrumental in the development of the two truths doctrine, which claims that there are two levels of truth or reality in Buddhist teaching, the ultimate reality (paramārtha satya) and the conventionally or superficial reality (saṃvṛtisatya).

The Buddha states that the immortal and infinite Buddha-nature - or "true self" of the Buddha - is the indestructible svabhāva of beings.

The interdependence that is what we call Emptiness (Śūnyatā). It [only] as a concept depends (prajnapti), but it is the Middle Way (Madhyama pratipat).

“…anirodham anutpādam anucchedam aśāśvataṃ | anekārtham anānārtham anāgamam anirgamaṃ ||” (MMK 1:0)

Not perish, not born, not lost, not permanent, not one, not diversity, not in existence, not the realm of annihilation. The first premise is to solve the problem of ontology, knowledge and ethics.

The second view: “Two truths doctrine” is the second one to solve the problem of truth, aesthetic.

In this work, Utilizing the Buddha's theory of “Dependent arising” (Pratitya-samutpada), demonstrated the futility of [...] metaphysical speculations. His method of dealing with such metaphysics is referred to as “middle way” (madhyama pratipad). It is the middle way that avoided the substantialism of the Sarvastivadins as well as the nominalism of the Sautrantikas.

All experienced phenomena are empty (sunya). This did not mean that they are not experienced and, therefore, non-existent; only that they are devoid of a permanent and eternal substance (svabhava). Since they are experienced, they are not mere names (prajnapti).

That is the dialectical skills of doctrine Buddhist socialism and philosophy. This is a logical thought pattern established by the four elements, the equivalent of four selected from different philosophical theories of Buddhist Theories of philosophy.

This theoretical model shows us the knowledge. But they have to be tested is good and it can be seen that the true extent of them also depends on the level of usability and usefulness of them.

If not rely on the application of the language, the supreme reality is not present; and not come to the supreme reality can not directly receive enlightenment, which is the model of the division level of realism comprehensive doctrine Buddhist socialism and philosophy construction and social development, balancing physical and moral.

2.4.Worldview of Buddhist socialism and philosophy

Worldview doctrine Buddhist philosophyshow how to recognize and interpret natural phenomena, a system of social consensus view; throughout all psychological phenomena and physics do not have a subject called independent, permanent, ... If this exists, then the other formation. This incurred the others arise. This one does not exist, then the other is not formed. This one passes away, the other one passes away, which is the core of the worldview of Buddhist socialism.

On the origin formed of the Universe was having theory Buddhist philosophyinterpreted and presented with a basic laws: Nowhere can one find the existence arises from itself, from the other, arising from both or without cause.

Everything - phenomena are impermanent, can't eternally, exist, they must perish, dependent origination is born when all shall perish. Even space, time and the universe held that under this rule: start, maintain, change and eventually end, the problem is that the time factor.

Everything phenomenon not permanent because they appear on the basis of dependence, based generation of, not themselves independent. But they will not be destroyed, because they absolutely do not have a self-assessment, not a self-sustaining basis, as they would in a saturated basic principles are integrated with the conditions of an equation: the formation, maintenance, was time to go damage, and time passes away. Do not have an immutable eternal God created everything, no element of God does not come from anywhere or Self exist without cause, when things have not yet exist.

Only [because] the phenomenon empty so we can arise and perish. And just because they are so empty building, protected conservation, and social development in order to escape the wandering floating, so can perform a balance and harmony in society. Assuming that the phenomenon is not empty, there is no development in the world of the universe, all completely from static, unchanging, we can say is “frozen in infinity”. Then things will not be so dependent on a fulcrum does not need to exist so they froze in eternal.

So things do not have an ego, there is no god creative and empty them, because they depend on [the conditions of the relationship] exists. All phenomena of physical and psychological life forms are in relation to each other, they are the cause of this factor and the result of another factor.

If phenomenon is not dependent and do not need a fulcrum to exist (similar to denote “basic self-existence”), if they are self-sustaining basis, something that does not need to rely on where to exist, no relation, but as a position of absolute lies on all things relative, other than changing the world around is made, it is self-sustaining, permanent, ... so the phenomenal world does not exist.

Thus, the worldview of theory Buddhism socialist explains: They exist or do not exist, and How does the phenomenon exist?

Theory Buddhist Socialism and philosophy explained by law: things are not really arise and perish: “Arguably, reassembled and disintegration [split] was found, but the composition and division only was found [on the basis] of the invisible ties”.

They have relationships established by the principle of relationship with each other. And this time they are born on the basis of the relationship, the phenomena and the universe does not really arise and perish, that is of a string extremely rotation.

2.5.Buddhism and science

2.5.1.Problems in Physics and Buddhism: The confirmation as a true discovery: From the Big Bang to Enlightenment

Today, when mankind is getting closer together than in the era of globalization and the rapid development of science and technology have confirmed the compatibility and consistency between science and Buddhism has created a dialogue special and interesting. Typically, the confirmation as a true discovery: From the Big Bang to Enlightenment, which is one of the aspects of science. The confirmation as a true discovery: From the Big Bang to the Enlightenment emphasized the element of Enlightenment (bodhi).

Since the Buddha's enlightenment, he taught throughout his life always insisted: “Nothing can be regarded as eternal, immutable”. That is, [Space] uncertainty, change, not permanent; the early stage of the formation of the universe and also the nature of all things.

Status of cosmic awakening began to discern is that people understand to be able to calculate all phenomena. Change is a common characteristic of all things born with conditions, the formation, maintenance existence, passes away - empty [change and destroy]. It is characteristic of the universe contains matter and energy, including our life. It gives a complete explanation of the types of phenomena observed in the universe. It brings a confirmation as a true revelation, all phenomena, whether psychological or physical of (natural), they are not extraordinary, everything is changing.

The universe is formed from elements empty. [Empty] to say about the nature of man and emptiness is all phenomena, including time have no self. This emptiness is not an object to an approach to the subject because the subject itself also belong to it. Therefore, it is enlightenment, is an experience not to be demonstrative, but can be certified and verified directly.

Although the truth is completely obvious, and may experience testing is everywhere, all the time, but we are (humans) still confusion surrounds, are not aware of this truth fully. The transition from the state of ignorance to the state of consciousness and recognize the impermanence of things which can make the road to the universe.

Since the confirmation as a true discovery: From the Big Bang to the Enlightenment was the smashed all wrong, because each system structure of a supernatural course be based upon a concept “eternal”, or a factor “God”- that misconception. Important to recognize that the general nature and principles throughout the change to see the relativity of things - phenomenon. It is from the Big Bang to the Enlightenment. Who is aware of this truth, the concept of the divine, God will retreat into the shadows and disappear.

2.5.2.­Problems in Psychology and Buddhism

As mentioned, during the life of the Buddha taught to everyone, he said only two things, namely: “Suffering and the end of suffering”, but methods to see suffering and how to end suffering of Buddha's way into their hearts, control the mind. The task of studying Psychology of Theory Buddhist socialism is given methods and techniques employed to control the mind; control psychological.

Consciousness is often referred to as the mind, refers to the aspect of intellect and consciousness. In the whole teaching of the Buddha of the mind and consciousness stream or when referring to the phenomenon of consciousness, the Buddha always call and use short, mind (citta). The performance of the combination of thinking, perception, emotion, imagination (Buddha called saṃjñā), consciousness ... Buddha pointed out that consciousness stream of consciousness.

Because of your mind, so the phenomenon of mind is born. [Because] the Dharma expression leads to mind is born. Mind is not in nor out. The mind knows discrimination, not in the body, not outside the body, not in the middle, does not appear anywhere; not attached (all), called the mind.

Methods of psychological control of theory Buddhism philosophy:

The task of studying psychology doctrine Buddhist socialism and philosophy find given the way as well as control skills, psychological control.

Theory Buddhist socialism research of activities to action, spirit (consciousness, volition), and thought of man's mind through the term to explain the phenomenon of physical activity, state of mind, and the external factors [situation] impact on the behavior and consciousness.

It is distinguished minds thinking, living and full of psychological phenomena; The mind contains all the experiences of life and the origin of all mental phenomena, is the ultimate reality of all phenomena of duality, the root of all mental phenomena. When the mind is examined as an individual, in a stratified on it leads to the world of phenomena appear.

According to aspects of morphology Buddhism, Mind perceived from the Sanskrit word Hṛdaya called:

i. The heart of flesh;

ii. Essence of humanity;

iii. Absolute Truth.

Mind, in terms of forms of psychological schools are understood and defined three types of heart, mind and this time be aware of the terms of the Pali language Citta:

i. Mind (8 type of consciousness);

ii. Conscious thought distinction;

iii. Conscious.

With theses: Mind, and the phenomenon of physical activity [body], the state of mind, and of the external factors [situation] impact on the behavior and consciousness, related to actions [Action, S. samskara, P. sankhàra], spirit (consciousness, volition) and reflection [samjna]; the fundamental thesis to solve research problems in Theory Psychology Buddhist socialism and philosophy.

Thus, the thesis of Mind, Theory Buddhist philosophygave way to explain the tasks of modern psychology. Theory Buddhist philosophyexplain the behavior and mental processes [spirit] of man. Theory Buddhist socialism explain the nature of the phenomena of mind (psychology), research and explain the relationship between the psychological phenomenon, indicating the role-location and function of mind (psychology) to human activities. Since then, the theory of Buddhist philosophymake matters within the field of psychology and research methods presented in the most general laws of the movement in the world of human life under the influence reciprocating positive of individuals with objective reality. That is the dialectical psychology techniques in theory Buddhist socialism and philosophy.

Theory Buddhist socialism and philosophy yet dialectical psychology techniques to study psychology in order to overcome practical problems, behavioral problems distraction (Psychoanalysis), overcoming the cognitive problems and psychological applications in social life in a positive way, to bring this research put into application in control practical life activities.

Psychological techniques dialectical doctrine of Buddhist socialism and philosophy contributing to cognitive processes for knowledge, awareness of mind. Technical dialectic also help people see and know of your own psychology, which is directed to the person we are aware of the aspects of intelligence and consciousness in stream of consciousness.

From there, it makes us humans applications conscious processes of the brain as well as to control the operation of the subconscious in order to avoid or limit the mistakes or sins effectively. Suffering comes from uncertainty, and humans are made up of Panca-skandha, is a collection for that form, there is no "self" real man behind the non-self.

2.6.The perception of Buddhist epistemology

In history, epistemology has been one of the topics to be studied philosophy and hotly debated. Much of the debate focused on the analysis of the nature and diversity of knowledge. Thereby, justify the relationship of perception with the same concepts as truth and belief. Specifically, the epistemological analysis of the standards of justification for the assertion of knowledge, that is the foundation from which one can assert that he knew a particular event. Put simply, it is considered questions related to the knowledge, wisdom and methods for understanding, to get understanding, and awareness. Cognitive processes are identified for active social life.

Buddhist epistemology is to understand the nature of the phenomenons. Since then, in this line generated of epistemological awareness and they are considered a part of Buddhist philosophy for the study of the origin, nature, form, extent, and the value of Mind and intellectuals.

Study of philosophical epistemology is the decoding of all the problems perceived by the four modes of truth to go to realize the ultimate truth in Buddhist epistemology, including:

  1. Identify the cognitive experience of the event is to learn and describe the original;
  2. According to the same, identify the causes related to the events that have used the experience and reasoning to find;
  3. Recognize and see, cognitive objectives should be implemented and thoroughly to achieve exactly true;
  4. Recognizing finally, the method was applied, whereby the achievements and experiences have been aware.

As the basis for generating motivation aim to realize knowledge, the general problem of Buddhist philosophy. Thereby, assess the nature of epistemology and ontology in terms of position and perspective of Buddhist philosophy.

2.7.Ontology Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy

Theory Buddhist socialism and philosophy advocated not to mention metaphysics in theory, but the study of the existence and formation through categories emptiness (Śūnyatā), Self properties (svabhava). Since then, the theory of Buddhist philosophy study of reality and the nature of existence. Identify the relationship of categories exist to identify factors that entity and the entity type within the framework of existing projects, and getting to know they exist, solve the fundamental thesis of the ontology.

All things are empty, they only rely on each other (condition, relationships, dependencies) to form.

i. The origin of all the formation, of the phenomena;

ii. Of the annihilation of them;

iii. At the same time create conditions for them to escape the wandering and floating.

Ontology Theory of Buddhist philosophy specify all psychological phenomena and physical make up life are in a relationship, they are the cause of this factor and is a result of a weak other factors. They do not have the ego, the no more self-sustaining without foundation or basis exists because God gives. Buddhism emphasizes two fundamental elements that are good and ethical rules in life to develop cognitive, intellectual, it is a means to liberate people from the cycle of misperceptions in God.

Aware of the termination evil deed, termination of an evil thoughts or actions damaging to the world, is always growing awareness of truth there is no God.

  1. Reviews of theory

Buddhist perspectives presented and explain natural phenomena and social systems into a unified view of the doctrine Buddhist socialism philosophy.

Throughout all psychological phenomena and physics, we do not have an independent entity, not permanent, they are interdependent; that is the core of Theories of Buddhist Socialism philosophy, which is Dependent arising (Pratityasamutpada) and dharma The Three marks are (Trilaksana). Thus, the proposed research, recognized doctrine Buddhist philosophy meet the needs and tasks of globalization, it is the value of the doctrine Buddhist socialism and philosophy in the current era.

Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy:

•           Concepts Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy

•           The stance of the Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy

•           The Problems of Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy (The key point in the method of Buddhist philosophy)

•           Worldviews of Buddhist philosophy

•           Buddhism and science:

-           Problems in Physics and Buddhism, the confirmation as a true discovery: From the Big Bang to Enlightenment

-           Problems in Psychology and Buddhism: The task of studying Psychology of Theory Buddhist socialism is given methods and techniques employed to control the mind; control psychological.

•           The perception of Buddhist epistemology

•           Ontology Theories of Buddhist Socialism and philosophy

Theory Buddhist socialism have the answers to fundamental thesis of ontology is: What is exists?

Philosophical categories, Śūnyatā, Self properties (svabhava) is a key pair used categories to show the true nature of the doctrine Buddhist socialism, solve fundamental thesis of ontological.

 

Thich Giac Chinh,

Founder & President: The Sakyamuni Buddhist Sangha Of The United States;

Teacher at Thiền viện Pháp Thuận – Dharma Meditation Temple Valley Center, California, USA.

 

References:

  1. Hirakawa, Akira: A History of Indian Buddhism. From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. Translated and Edited by Paul Groner. University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
  2. Cousins, L. S. (1996). The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Series 3 (6.1): 57–63 . Retrieved 2007-07-11.; reprinted in Williams, Buddhism, volume I
  3. Fields, Rick (1992), How the Swans came to the Lake - A Narrative History of Buddhism in America and McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6.
  4. Lê Mạnh Thát, Lịch sử Phật giáo Việt Nam, Nxb. Thuận hóa, tập I, 1999.
  5. Kinh Pháp ấn (Phật thuyết Pháp Ấn Kinh) thuộc Kinh bộ A Hàm, bài kinh số 104 của Đại chính tân tu đại tạng kinh. Kinh này do thiền sư  Câu Na Bạt Ðà La dịch, vào đời Tống. Trong kinh tạng Pàli, Pháp ấn được nói đến trong bài kinh số 43 của Trung Bộ (Najjihima Nikaya) và trong bộ Patisambhidà Magga. Kinh này do thiền sư Thi Hộ đời Tống dịch từ Phạn ra Hán văn.
  6. Trung bộ kinh中部經, P. majjhima-nikāya), Số 22, HT. Thích Minh Châu (dịch) - Đại Tạng Kinh Việt Nam.
  7. Fo Guang Ta-tz'u-tien佛光大辭典. Fo Guang Ta-tz'u-tien pien-hsiu wei-yuan-hui 佛光大辭典編修委員會. Taipei: Fo-kuang ch'u-pan-she, 1988. (Phật Quang Đại Từ Điển. Phật Quang Đại Từ Điển biên tu uỷ viên hội. Đài Bắc: Phật Quang xuất bản xã, 1988.)
  8. 大正新脩大藏: Đại chính tân tu đại tạng kinh ( Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō), Đại Phương Quảng Phật Hoa Nghiêm kinh (H. 大方廣佛華嚴經, S. buddhāvataṃsaka-mahāvaipulyasūtra, ja. daihō kōbutsu kegonkyō), Hội Xuất bản các Kinh điển Quan trọng Taisho ( 大正一切経刊行会) ấn hành từ năm 1924-1934.
  9. Nāgārjuna, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 24: Trung quán luận , gọi đầy đủ theo tên Phạn văn là Căn bản trung luận tụng (S. mūlamadhyamakakārikā).
  10. Duyên Khởi kinh縁起經), Taishō No. 124.
  11. Tương Ưng bộ (P. Saṃyuttanikāya SN) II. 28.
  12. Luật tạng (P. Vinayapiṭaka), Đại phẩm (P. mahāvagga), bài Kinh Mahākkhandaka (Đại Tạng Kinh Việt Nam).
  13. 縁起經: Duyên khởi kinh, dịch từ Phạn văn trong: Frauwallner, E. Die Philosophie des Buddhismus, Berlin 1956.
  14. Richard H. Jones, Science and Mysticism: A Comparative Study of Western Natural Science, Theravada Buddhism, and Advaita Vedanta (Bucknell University Press, 1986), ISBN 978-0-8387-5093-3.
  15. Yong, Amos. (2005) Buddhism and Science: Breaking New Ground (review) Buddhist-Christian Studies - Volume 25, 2005.
  16. Matthieu Ricard, Trinh Xuan Thuan, The Quantum and the Lotus (Three Rivers Press, 2004).
  17. Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 


[1] Fields, Rick (1992), How the Swans came to the Lake - A Narrative History of Buddhism in America and McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6.

[2] With the rise of European colonization of Buddhist countries in Asia during the 19th century detailed knowledge of Buddhism became available to large numbers of people in the West, as a result of accompanying scholarly endeavours.

[3] The Three marks are (Trilakṣaṇa):

“All saṅkhāras (compounded things) are impermanent”: Sabbe saṅkhāra aniccā;

“All saṅkhāras are unsatisfactory”: Sabbe saṅkhāra dukkha;

“All dhammas (all things including the unconditioned) are without self”: Sabbe dhammā anattā.

[4]中部經, Pali. Majjhima-nikāya, No. 22, The Master Most Venerable Thich Minh Chau (translation).

[5] Nagarjuna. Mūlamadhyamakakārikā 1:1, Also known as the Prajñā-nāma-mūlamadhyamakakārikā or as the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā-prajñā-nāma.

[6]Garfield, Jay L. (1995), The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Oxford: Oxford University Press

[7]Garfield 1995, p. 304.

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